Migration¶
The algorithm¶
Migration, in PyGMO, happens asynchronously in each PyGMO.island between calls of the evolve() method of the PyGMO.archipelago where the PyGMO.island has been pushed back. Each islands maintains a database of outgoing (or incoming) migrants. The various databases are used before evolution to replace some PyGMO.individual in the PyGMO.island and are then updated after evolution with the new selected migrants.
The algorithm is rather complex and the user does not need to know/understand its details as PyGMO sets defaults values for all of its many parameters. These are:
Migration Rates¶
Default value: 1
These parameters defines the number of individuals that are selected from each PyGMO.island for migration as well as the number of migrants that will be considered for insertion in each PyGMO.island. To Migration Rates are set by the ‘s_policy’ and ‘r_policy’ kwarg in the PyGMO.island constructor. This can be done by specifying the absolute number of individuals (migration.rate_type.absolute) or the fraction of the PyGMO.population individuals (migration.rate_type.fractional)
from PyGMO import *
prob = problem.schwefel(15)
algo = algorithm.de(gen = 100) #instantiates differential evolution with default params and 100 generations
selection = migration.best_s_policy(0.10,migration.rate_type.fractional)
replacement = migration.fair_r_policy(0.25,migration.rate_type.fractional)
isl = island(algo,prob,s_policy = selection, r_policy = replacement)
Migration Direction¶
Default value: migration_direction.destination
In PyGMO the asynchronous migration is implemented by keeping a migrants database on each island. Then one of the following options can be followed:
‘destination’: The internal migrants database stores, for each PyGMO.island, the individuals that are meant to migrate from that island. Before each evolution, the PyGMO.island will get migrating individuals from those made available by the islands connecting to it. After each evolution, the PyGMO.island will update its list of best individuals in the database.
- ‘source’: The internal migrants database stores for each PyGMO.island the individuals that are
meant to migrate to that PyGMO.island. Before each evolution, an PyGMO.island will check if individuals destined to it are available in the database, and, in such case will, migrate over incoming individuals before starting evolution. After each evolution, the PyGMO.island will place its candidate individuals for emigration in the database slots of the island(s) to which it connects.
The migration direction is set by the ‘migration_direction’ kwarg in the PyGMO.archipelago constructor
from PyGMO import *
prob = problem.schwefel(15)
algo = algorithm.de(gen = 100) #instantiates differential evolution with default params and 100 generations
direction = migration_direction.source
archi = archipelago(migration_direction = direction)
Migration Distribution Type¶
Default value: distribution_type.point_to_point
When migration happens one has to decide which of the connected islands contributes to the event. This is decided by the distribution type that can be one of the following:
- ‘point to point’: only one of the neighbourghing islands, selected at random, is sending (or receiving) the individuals
- ‘broadcast’: all neighbourghing islands are sending (or receiving) the individuals
The migration distribution type is set by the ‘distribution_type’ kwarg in the PyGMO.archipelago constructor
from PyGMO import *
prob = problem.schwefel(15)
algo = algorithm.de(gen = 100) #instantiates differential evolution with default params and 100 generations
distribution = distribution_type.broadcast
archi = archipelago(distribution_type = distribution)
Migration Selection Policy¶
Default value: migration.best_s_policy(1)
The selection policy is the object responsible to choose out of a PyGMO.population the individuals that will migrate. All selection policies derive from the same base class and currently a few are implemented:
- ‘migration.best_s_policy’: Selects the best individuals for a single-objective optimization problem. For a multi-objective optimization problem, an individual is considered better as another individual if it has a lower non-domination rank or - if the non-domination ranks of both individuals are equal - a higher crowding distance.
- ‘migration.best_kill_s_policy’: The same as ‘migration.best_s_policy’ but every selected individual gets reinitialized in the originating population.
- ‘migration.random_s_policy’: Individuals are selected uniformly at random.
- ‘migration.hv_greedy_s_policy’: Select the best individuals for a single-objective optimization problem. For a multi-objective optimization problem, and individual is considered better than another individual if its exclusive contribution to the hypervolume (see PyGMO.hypervolume for more details) is greater. The set of best individuals is created iteratively - after each selection of the individual, it is removed from the population so it does not diminish the contributions of other individuals.
- ‘migration.hv_best_s_policy’: Select the best individuals for a single-objective optimization problem. For a multi-objective optimization problem, and individual is considered better than another individual if its exclusive contribution to the hypervolume (see PyGMO.hypervolume for more details) is greater. The main distinction between this policy and PyGMO.hv_best_s_policy is computing all the contributions at once (without the removal step).
The selection policy is set by the ‘s_policy’ kwarg in the PyGMO.island constructor
from PyGMO import *
prob = problem.schwefel(15)
algo = algorithm.de(gen = 100) #instantiates differential evolution with default params and 100 generations
best2 = migration.best_s_policy(2) # two individuals will be selected as the best
isl = island(algo,prob,s_policy = best2)
Migration Replacement Policy¶
Default value: migration.fair_r_policy(1)
The replacement policy is the object responsible to substitute the individuals in a population with the migrants. All replacement policies derive from the same base class and currently a few are implemented:
- ‘migration.fair_r_policy’: simply replaces the worst individuals in the island with the best of the incoming migrants. This is subject to the added condition that the migrants are better. For multi-objective optimization problems, an individual is considered better than another individual if it has a lower non-domination rank or - if the non-domination ranks are equal - a higher crowding distance (compare with ‘migration.best_s_policy’)
- ‘migration.random_r_policy’: replaces random individuals in the island with random incoming migrants
- ‘migration.worst_r_policy’: replaces the worst individuals in the island with the best of the incoming migrants. In a multi-objective setting, the meaning of better is like in ‘migration.fair_r_policy’ or ‘migration.best_s_policy’).
- ‘migration.hv_greedy_r_policy’: Replaces a the worst individuals in the island with the best of the incoming immigrants. The distinction between individuals is made based on their exclusive contribution to the hypervolume (see PyGMO.hypervolume for more details). Both sets are determined iteratively - set of worst islanders is determined by choosing the least contributor among them, and then removing it from the population in order to prevent it from diminishing the contributions of other individuals. Likewise, the set of best immigrants is determined by their exclusive contribution to the hypervolume in an iterative fashion, except this time the greatest contributor is chosen.
- ‘migration.hv_fair_r_policy’: The distinction between individuals is made based on their exclusive contribution to the hypervolume (see PyGMO.hypervolume for more details). Both sets are determined by computing the contributions to the hypervolume at once, without the removal step (as opposed to the ‘migration.hv_greedy_r_policy’).
The replacement policy is set by the ‘r_policy’ kwarg in the island constructor
from PyGMO import *
prob = problem.schwefel(15)
algo = algorithm.de(gen = 100) #instantiates differential evolution with default params and 100 generations
random4 = migration.random_policy(4) # four individuals will be selected at random
# from the migrants and will replace random individuals
isl = island(algo,prob,s_policy = best2)
Migration Topology¶
Default value: migration.unconnected()
The migration topology determines which island will be connected to which island. It also takes care that when an island is pushed back into an archipelago, the topological properties of the resulting new connectivity graph are left unchanged. It is set by the ‘topology’ kwarg in the archipelago constructor
from PyGMO import *
prob = problem.schwefel(15)
algo = algorithm.de(gen = 100) #instantiates differential evolution with default params and 100 generations
topo = topology.ring()
archi = archipelago(algo,prob,topology = topo)
The Classes¶
- class PyGMO.migration.best_s_policy([n=1, type = migration.rate_type.absolute])¶
A selection policy that selects the n best PyGMO.individual in the PyGMO.island‘s PyGMO.population. If type is migration.rate_type.fractional then n, in [0,1], is interpreted as the fraction of the population to be selected. This class is used exclusively in the PyGMO.island constructor as a possible kwarg for the key ‘s_policy’
from PyGMO import * prob = problem.griewank(5) algo = algorithm.bee_colony(gen = 10) #instantiates artificial bee colony with default params and 10 generations best2 = migration.best_s_policy(2) best50pc = migration.best_s_policy(0.5,migration.rate_type.fractional) isl1 = island(algo,prob,10,s_policy = best2) #2 of the best individuals will migrate isl2 = island(algo,prob,32,s_policy = best50pc) #50% of 32 (i.e. 16) best individuals will migrate
- class PyGMO.migration.best_kill_s_policy([n=1, type = migration.rate_type.absolute])¶
A selection policy that selects the n best PyGMO.individual in the PyGMO.island‘s PyGMO.population and kills them in the original population so that only the migrant will survive. A new random individual will replace the migrant in the original population If type is migration.rate_type.fractional then n, in [0,1], is interpreted as the fraction of the population to be selected. This class is used exclusively in the PyGMO.island constructor as a possible kwarg for the key ‘s_policy’
from PyGMO import * prob = problem.griewank(5) algo = algorithm.bee_colony(gen = 10) #instantiates artificial bee colony with default params and 10 generations best2 = migration.best_kill_s_policy(2) best50pc = migration.best_s_policy(0.5,migration.rate_type.fractional) isl1 = island(algo,prob,10,s_policy = best2) #2 of the best individuals will migrate and be reinitialized in pop isl2 = island(algo,prob,32,s_policy = best50pc) #50% of 32 (i.e. 16) best individuals will migrate
- class PyGMO.migration.random_s_policy([n=1, type = migration.rate_type.absolute])¶
This selection policy selects n random PyGMO.individual in the PyGMO.island‘s PyGMO.population selected uniformly. This class is used exclusively in the PyGMO.island constructor as a possible kwarg for the key ‘s_policy’
from PyGMO import * prob = problem.griewank(5) algo = algorithm.bee_colony(gen = 10) #instantiates artificial bee colony with default params and 10 generations random10 = migration.random_s_policy(10) best10 = migration.best_s_policy(10) isl1 = island(algo,prob,50,s_policy = best10) #10 random individuals will be selected for migration isl2 = island(algo,prob,50,s_policy = best10) #the 10 best individuals will be selected for migration
- class PyGMO.migration.hv_greedy_s_policy([n=1, type = migration.rate_type.absolute, nadir_eps=1.0])¶
This selection policy selects n PyGMO.individual in the PyGMO.island‘s PyGMO.population. The comparison between individuals is made according to the exclusive hypervolume they contribute to the population (see PyGMO.hypervolume for more details). The resulting set of individuals is created iteratively, with each step consisting of selecting the greatest contributor, and then removing it from the population to prevent it fromt diminishing the exclusive contributions of the remaining individuals. The reference point for all hypervolume computations is the current nadir-point of the population with an off-set determined by the nadir_eps.
NOTE: This migration applies only to multi-objective problems. In case of a single-objective problem, the PyGMO.migration.best_s_policy is used instead.
from PyGMO import * prob = problem.dtlz(prob_id = 3, fdim=5) algo = algorithm.nsga_II(gen = 10) #instantiates the NSGA-II algorithm hv_greedy_10 = migration.hv_greedy_s_policy(10) isl = island(algo, prob, 50, s_policy = hv_greedy_10) #10 random individuals will be selected for migration
- class PyGMO.migration.hv_best_s_policy([n=1, type = migration.rate_type.absolute, nadir_eps=1.0])¶
This selection policy selects n PyGMO.individual in the PyGMO.island‘s PyGMO.population. The comparison between individuals is made according to the exclusive hypervolume they contribute to the population (see PyGMO.hypervolume for more details). The resulting set of individuals is created by computing all contributions for each of the individuals of the population, and then selecting n greatest contributors. The reference point for all hypervolume computations is the current nadir-point of the population with an off-set determined by the nadir_eps.
NOTE: This migration applies only to multi-objective problems. In case of a single-objective problem, the PyGMO.migration.best_s_policy is used instead.
from PyGMO import * prob = problem.dtlz(prob_id = 3, fdim=5) algo = algorithm.nsga_II(gen = 10) #instantiates the NSGA-II algorithm hv_greedy_10 = migration.hv_greedy_s_policy(10) isl = island(algo, prob, 50, s_policy = hv_greedy_10) #10 random individuals will be selected for migration
- class PyGMO.migration.fair_r_policy([n=1, type = migration.rate_type.absolute])¶
A replacement policy that replaces the worst n PyGMO.individual in the PyGMO.island‘s PyGMO.population with the best n migrants. Each replacement takes place if and only if the migrant is considered better. If type is migration.rate_type.fractional then n, in [0,1], is interpreted as the fraction of the population to be replaced. This class is used exclusively in the PyGMO.island constructor as a possible kwarg for the key ‘r_policy’
from PyGMO import * prob = problem.griewank(5) algo = algorithm.bee_colony(10) #instantiates artificial bee colony with default params and 10 generations fair2 = migration.fair_r_policy(2) fair20pc = migration.fair_r_policy(0.2,migration.rate_type.fractional) isl1 = island(algo,prob,10,r_policy = fair2) #2 of the worst individuals will be considered for replacement isl2 = island(algo,prob,100,r_policy = fair20pc) #20% of 100 (i.e. 20) worst individuals will be considered for replacement
- class PyGMO.migration.random_r_policy([n=1, type = migration.rate_type.absolute])¶
A replacement policy that replaces n random PyGMO.individual in the PyGMO.island‘s PyGMO.population with random n migrants. If type is migration.rate_type.fractional then n, in [0,1], is interpreted as the fraction of the population to be replaced. This class is used exclusively in the PyGMO.island constructor as a possible kwarg for the key ‘r_policy’
from PyGMO import * prob = problem.griewank(5) algo = algorithm.bee_colony(gen = 10) #instantiates artificial bee colony with default params and 10 generations random2 = migration.random_r_policy(2) isl = island(algo,prob,10,r_policy = random2) #2 random individuals will be replaced with random migrants
- class PyGMO.migration.worst_r_policy([n=1, type = migration.rate_type.absolute])¶
A replacement policy that replaces the n worst PyGMO.individual in the PyGMO.island‘s PyGMO.population with the best n migrants. If type is migration.rate_type.fractional then n, in [0,1], is interpreted as the fraction of the population to be replaced. This class is used exclusively in the PyGMO.island constructor as a possible kwarg for the key ‘r_policy’
from PyGMO import * prob = problem.griewank(5) algo = algorithm.bee_colony(gen = 10) #instantiates artificial bee colony with default params and 10 generations worst2 = migration.worst_r_policy(2) isl = island(algo,prob,10,r_policy = worst2) #the 2 worst individuals will be replaced by the best migrants
- class PyGMO.migration.hv_greedy_r_policy([n=1, type = migration.rate_type.absolute, nadir_eps = 1.0])¶
A replacement policy that replaces the worst n PyGMO.individual in the PyGMO.island‘s PyGMO.population with the best n immigrants. Each replacement takes place if and only if the migrant is considered better. The comparison between individuals is made according to the exclusive hypervolume they contribute to the population (see PyGMO.hypervolume for more details). If type is migration.rate_type.fractional then n, in [0,1], is interpreted as the fraction of the population to be replaced. The reference point for all hypervolume computations is the current nadir-point of the population with an off-set determined by the nadir_eps.
The sets of worst islanders and best immigrants are determined according to the exclusive contribution by each individual. This is done iteratively; after each request for the least (in case of worst set) or greatest (in case of best set) contributor, the individual is removed from the working population, in order to prevent it from diminishing the exclusive contributions by other points.
NOTE: This migration applies only to multi-objective problems. In case of a single-objective problem, the PyGMO.migration.fair_r_policy is used instead.
from PyGMO import * prob = problem.dltz3(fdim=5) algo = algorithm.nsga_II(gen=10) # Instantiates the NSGA-II algorithm hv_greedy = migration.hv_greedy_r_policy(2) isl = island(algo,prob,10,r_policy = hv_greedy) # 2 of the worst individuals will be considered for replacement
- class PyGMO.migration.hv_fair_r_policy([n=1, type = migration.rate_type.absolute, nadir_eps = 1.0])¶
A replacement policy that replaces the worst n PyGMO.individual in the PyGMO.island‘s PyGMO.population with the best n immigrants. Each replacement takes place if and only if the migrant is considered better. The comparison between individuals is made according to the exclusive hypervolume they contribute to the population (see PyGMO.hypervolume for more details). If type is migration.rate_type.fractional then n, in [0,1], is interpreted as the fraction of the population to be replaced. The reference point for all hypervolume computations is the current nadir-point of the population with an off-set determined by the nadir_eps.
The sets of worst islanders and best immigrants are determined according to the exclusive contribution by each individual. This is done by a single computation of the exclusive contributions over a joined population of original individuals and the immigrants. The vector of contributions serves as a mean for determining the required sets.
NOTE: This migration applies only to multi-objective problems. In case of a single-objective problem, the PyGMO.migration.fair_r_policy is used instead.
from PyGMO import * prob = problem.dltz3(fdim=5) algo = algorithm.nsga_II(gen=10) # Instantiates the NSGA-II algorithm hv_fair = migration.hv_fair_r_policy(3) isl = island(algo,prob,10,r_policy = hv_fair) # 3 of the worst individuals will be considered for replacement
- class PyGMO.distribution_type¶
This class attributes are be used to set the kwarg ‘distribution_type’ of the PyGMO.archipelago constructor kwarg ‘migration_direction’ to define whether the migrants will be distributed to one of the neighbouring island chosen at random or to all of them
- point_to_point¶
Migrants are distributed to one of neighbouring PyGMO.island selected at random
- broadcast¶
Migrants are distributed to all neighbouring PyGMO.island
- class PyGMO.migration_direction¶
This class attributes are be used to set the kwarg ‘migration_direction’ of the PyGMO.archipelago constructor kwarg ‘migration_direction’ to define whether the migrant databases will contain the incoming or the outgoing individuals.
- destination¶
Migrant database contains outgoing individuals
- source¶
Migrant database contains incoming individuals
- class PyGMO.migration.rate_type¶
- This class attributes are used to set the second arg in the various selection and replacement policies (PyGMO.migration.best_s_policy, PyGMO.migration.fair_r_policy, PyGMO.migration.worst_r_policy, PyGMO.migration.random_r_policy)
- absolute¶
The number of migrants is specified as an absolute number
- fractional¶
The number of migrants is specified as fraction of the PyGMO.population size