problem class represents a generic optimization
problem. The user codes the details of such a problem in a separate class (the
user-defined problem, or UDP) which is then passed to
that provides a single unified interface.
The User Defined Problems (UDPs) are optimization problems (coded by the user) that can
be used to build a pygmo object of type
Some UDPs (optimization problems) are already provided with pygmo and we refer to them as pygmo UDPs.
For the purpose of this tutorial we are going to use a pygmo UDP called
to show the basic construction of a
problem, but the same logic would also
apply to a custom UDPs, that is a UDP that is actually coded by the user.
Let us start:
>>> import pygmo as pg >>> prob = pg.problem(pg.rosenbrock(dim = 5)) >>> print(prob) Problem name: Multidimensional Rosenbrock Function C++ class name: ... Global dimension: 5 Integer dimension: 0 Fitness dimension: 1 Number of objectives: 1 Equality constraints dimension: 0 Inequality constraints dimension: 0 Lower bounds: [-5, -5, -5, -5, -5] Upper bounds: [10, 10, 10, 10, 10] Has batch fitness evaluation: false Has gradient: true User implemented gradient sparsity: false Expected gradients: 5 Has hessians: false User implemented hessians sparsity: false Fitness evaluations: 0 Gradient evaluations: 0 Thread safety: constant
In the code above, after the trivial import of the pygmo package, we define a variable prob
by constructing a
rosenbrock, a multidimensional problem
constructed from its global dimensions. In the following line we inspect the
We can see, at a glance, that the UDP
rosenbrock is a five dimensional, single objective, box constrained
problem for which neither gradients nor hessians nor sparsity information is provided in the UDP.
We also see that its fitness function has never been called hence the counter for fitness evaluations is zero.
All of the information contained in the
problem print out can be retrieved using
the appropriate methods, for example:
>>> prob.get_fevals() == 0 True
Lets check how a fitness computation increases the counter:
>>> prob.fitness([1,2,3,4,5]) array([14814.]) >>> prob.get_fevals() == 1 True
>>> udp = prob.extract(pg.rosenbrock) >>> type(udp) <class 'pygmo.core.rosenbrock'> >>> udp = prob.extract(pg.rastrigin) >>> udp is None True
Such an extraction will only work if the correct UDP type is passed as argument.